Sunday, May 24, 2020

Definition Of An Educational Institution - 1278 Words

ORGANIZATION NAME AND DESCRIPTION: The organization which choose is an educational institution which is Johnson Grammar School shortly known as JGS, I have studied in this school of about from kindergarten to my high school. When it comes to description, the school was established in the year 1979. It offers quality of education in kindergarten, middle school and even in high school. OPERATING MODEL: In a business organization there should always be presence of operating model as this lays a firm foundation for the whole organization and this helps in reaching the desired goal. The ultimate goal is to see all students from Johnson able to adjust, with respect to a fast changing environment, with the ability to lead in the field which they have decided to choose with integrity and courage. Well the organization depends on maintaining the decisions centralized. The school maintains its position as one of the top institution by improving its efficiency consistently and enhances student’s capabilities in making them merits. BUSINESS FUNCTION DEFINITION SUMMARY No. Goals Sub Goals Definition Organizational Unit I Value added functions 1 Admit New Students 1.1 Entrance Exams Entrance Exams is concerned with admitting new students by conducting Entrance exams or by interviewing them regarding their previous study and filtering the ones who deserve it. Admissions Crew 1.2 Provide ID’s Provide ID’s is concerned with providing identification cards to all the admittedShow MoreRelatedStruggling to Define Industry in the Industrial Disputes Act805 Words   |  3 Pagesthe definition of ‘industry’ given under section 2(j). To avail the benefit of the ID Act, it is necessary for the worker to prove that his place of employment falls under the purview of the definition of ‘industry’ in s 2(j). Over the years the judiciary has laid down certain tests and criteria to determine and limit (or as seen later, expand) the scope of the legislation to extend the benefits to workers in different establishments. One such issue was to examine if educational institutions (universitiesRead MoreImproving Student Satis faction Is One Way Tru Can Attract Students And Increase Its Retention Rate964 Words   |  4 Pageschoose TRU for their educational needs. Improving student satisfaction is one way TRU can attract these prospective students and increase its retention rate. TRU, like other higher education institutions (HEI), is a firm offering services to customers. Kotler and Keller (2008) have defined services as â€Å"deeds, performances or efforts of providers to customers.† Although this definition for services is generally accepted, there is far less consistency in available definitions for customer satisfactionRead MoreCurriculum and Professional Issues1444 Words   |  6 PagesThe education system is a social institution that often faces major changes, such is the nature of public services and similar social institutions. A major factor in the changes made to these institutions is the prevalence of curriculum reform through planning and informed development. (A.V Kelly, 2004) There are various ways in which curriculum has been defined, Curriculum can be taken to mean the quintessence of a syllabus of learning and includes philosophy, substance, strategies and assessmentRead MoreThe Institutions Of Classroom Dynamics944 Words   |  4 PagesThe institutions of classroom dynamics in educational settings reveal social differences in the American educational system. Within the American educational system, students and teachers alike are subject to both visible and invisible forms of inequality and difference. Within this system, concepts, such as the double bind, subordination of women, and androcentrism expose how both student/teacher dynamics and student/student dynamics define gendered boundaries. Moreover, these boundaries perpetuateRead MoreNo Child Left Behind Act1358 Words   |  6 Pages1. 4. Steps Taken by Educational Institutions to Comply with FERPA Few decades back, educational institutions maintained educational records mainly in paper files. In those days, privacy breaches meant access to information present paper files without proper consent, and the main concern was related to misuse of the student information by agencies rather than the theft of records. To comply with FERPA, educational institutions had to safeguard paper files from illegal access, and provide access toRead More A Unique Approach: Education in Public and Charter Schools Essay960 Words   |  4 PagesUnique Approach: Education in Public and Charter Schools School choice: two words that together spell out a multitude of educational options for students today. Among them are charter schools and public schools; public schools standing the test of time and charter schools being at the forefront of a revolution in educational change. Surprisingly, these two educational institutions have more in common than one might think, but maintain their differences. Key differences between charter and public schoolsRead MoreChanging Society as a Whole in Stubblefield and Keanes Adult Education in the American Experience582 Words   |  3 Pages When one thinks about educational opportunities, it is most likely schoolhouse, college, and even university settings that may come to mind. As Stubblefield and Keane (1994) point out in Adult Education in the American Experience (Stubblefield Keane, 1994), â€Å"provisions for educating adults, however, did not take shape around a single institutional form† (p. 1). Throughout the first two parts of their 1994 book Adult Education in the American Experience: From the Colonial to the Present, StubblefieldRead MoreAccreditation : Different Types Of Definitions Of Accreditation1364 Words   |  6 PagesIf you look into the definition of accreditation there are different types of definitions of accreditation. One can find regarding educational institutes like universities, colleges, student s volunteering and other organisations working for education and youth. Generally accreditation is the act of accreditation or state of being accredit, especially the granting of approval to an institution of learning by an official review board after the school or body has met specific requirement. The termRead MoreReligious Beliefs in India Essay1087 Words   |  5 Pages the answers vary from government to economics and to education, among a vast list of other possibilities. In the case of the South Asian state of India, religion is one of the primary foundations for both their past social systems and current institutions and it is recognized as a predominately religious region. Though the country is constitutionally secular, religion plays one of the largest roles in society. The numerous theologies represented in India dictate the content of legislature, the statusRead MoreA Causal Comparative Research Design Essay1208 Words   |  5 Pagesfrom the educational institution being studied. Meanwhile, the dependent variable is represented by the quality of the school and its programs. The groups of individuals identified in this study are pre-existing ones or naturally formed. Therefore, no random selection has taken place. This means that in this case, those individuals assessed are selected based on their current educational status being new enrollees to a program or about to be graduates of that particular educational institution. 25 new

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Babylonian Class Hierarchy It’s Presence in Hammurabi’s...

Babylonian Class Hierarchy It’s Presence in Hammurabi’s Code of Law Upon reading articles and texts concerning Hammurabi’s Code of law, I made a connection between its context and the class hierarchy of early Babylonian civilizations. The structure of the code of law parallels the expectation or rights of those in the different class levels. There are standards that each may be held to, and deviations of those standards have differing penalties for the different classes of peoples. What I found to be interesting, was that slaves (the ardu class) were not specifically born of a certain people or race, but could become a slave as a result of being a prisoner of war, through their crimes, their debts or as a means of self chosen servitude†¦show more content†¦When the statement, â€Å"The great ones surround you.† This led me to believe that this pharaoh believed he’d become equal to the God, and would be one of the great ones to surround the God. Lastly, when the statement said, â€Å"The watchers will wait on you.† I took this to mean slaves in the afterlife, perhaps a sort of purgatory for less fortunate souls. I question why the pharaohs needed these incantations to be written in the pyramids, if they were to be of equal stature on Earth? According to Strayer, p. 108, the pharaohs were believed to be a god in human form. I assume it’s the result of a need for reassurance for their place in the afterlife, a last fee paid or plea for their position in the afterlife. Babylonian class hierarchy seemed present in life and the afterlife according to these sources. The Code of Hammurabi provided order and guidance as to how to sustain these classes and maintain order amongst the earlier civilizations. Bibliography †¢ Strayer, Robert W. Ways of the World: A Brief Global History, Volume 1 †¢ avalon.law.yale.edu/ancient/hammpre.asp Johns, Rev. Claude Herman Walter, The Avolon Project- Babylonian Law: The Code of Hummuri, Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library, 9/29/2012 †¢ www.timemaps.com/civilization/Ancient-Mesopotamia Civilization: Ancient Mesopotamia,

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Definition Of Health Care Quality - 1657 Words

The definition of health care quality has changed significantly over the years. Depending on who is asked (doctor, patient, nurse etc.), the definition can vary; however there are always some similarities. There are two definitions expressed by the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) that I believe adequately express my view on health care quality. One definition is from the Institute of Medicine that states health care quality is â€Å"safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient and equitable† (NCQA, n.d., pg. 8). The other definition is from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality that states that health care quality is â€Å" doing the right thing for the right patient, at the right time, in the right way to achieve the best possible results† (NCQA, n.d, pg. 8). I think my view of health care quality is truly the combination of these two definitions. Health care should be provided equally to all patients in an affordable and efficient way and provide those patients with the best possible outcomes. Health care quality to also not just beneficial to patient outcomes, it also has a major impact on the operation of healthcare facilities. According to Huber (2014) the cost of poor health care quality has increased to almost $1.2 trillion each year on overuse, underuse, misuse, waste, and inefficiency. This clearly shows that not only does the patient benefit from high quality care but the facilities providing the care also benefit. The question is then howShow MoreRelatedHolistic Approach to Nursing and Cultural Approach to Nursing1726 Words   |  7 Pagesthe theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. This theory states the following: The term, culturally congruent care, was coined by the theorist in the early 1960s. The purpose of the theory is to discover culturally based emic and etic care phenomena that are congruent or meaningful to cultures, and which influence the lifeways of the people. The theory focuses on identifying the care values, beliefs, lifeways, and symbolic referents related to culture care phenomena that bear uponRead MorePatient And Family Centered Care Essay1357 Words   |  6 Pagesfamily centered care is a vital component in the delivery of health care. It is not only nurses who influence the delivery of patient and family centered care; in fact, there is a wide range of health care disciplines that are involved in the process. Some of these disciplines include physicians, respiratory therapists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, pharmacy, and case managers. Two vital attributes that contribute to patient and family centered care among the health care team are collaborati onRead MoreApplication Of Concept Analysis For Clinical Practice1254 Words   |  6 Pagesof this article was to provide an accurate definition of eHealth, in the context of nursing. The emergence of technology in health care has been very rapid and changing the health care sector exponentially. This development has changed the concept of eHealth from what was initially intended to describe the use of communication and information technology. The widespread use of the term in all the sectors has made it difficult to coin a consistent definition. There is an apparent need for analyzingRead MoreDefinition Of Clinical Governance And Accountability1551 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction: Within this assignment, the definition of clinical governance and accountability will be explored and discussed using a literature search. A case example will be used and briefly discuss the accountability of the nurse and other health professionals of professional standards, local polices and law. Confidentiality has been maintained within the use of the case example. A literature search was carried out for clinical governance using the British Nursing Index (BNI). Results originatedRead MoreThe Definition Of A Client Essay1682 Words   |  7 Pagesas an individual awaiting or under medical care and treatment, and as the recipient of any of various personal services. A definition of a client is found as one that is under the protection of another, a person who engages the professional advice or services of another, and as a person served by or utilizing the services of a social agency. A patient and client are one in the same in the present nursing profession. However neither of these definitions alone embody what a client is to a nurse.Read MoreNursing: Providing The Best Possible Care For Patients1457 Words   |  6 Pagessomeone else. Nursing not only involves treating an illness, but it also provides quality patient-centered care. My philosophy involves having a strong base knowledge of medicine as well as being able to provide compassio nate patient-centered care. I believe nursing is holistic and committed to achieving the best patient outcome. My belief of nursing being holistic is that it involves a person, environment, health, and nursing. I also believe that it is extremely important for nurses to be able toRead MoreInstitute Of Medicine Report On Quality1432 Words   |  6 PagesInstitute of Medicine Report on Quality Introduction In 1996, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) initiated a campaign aimed to evaluate and improve the quality of care for health care systems in America (Bielaszka-DuVernay, 2011 p.2). Consequently, IOM Committee on Quality Health Care outlined strategies to improve patient safety by preventing medical errors that are caused by individual and system factors in a report titled â€Å"To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System† (1999). Furthermore, IOM‘sRead MoreProcess Of Identification Definition Essay1680 Words   |  7 PagesProcess of Identification Definition Shaquita Jefferson MHA 620 Dr. Rhonda C. Hatfield August 17, 2015 Process of Identification Definition Health is the main value of human life. It occupies the highest level in the hierarchy of human needs. It is one of the most important components of human happiness and successful social and economic development. Implementation of the intellectual, moral and spiritual, physical and reproductive potential is only possible in a healthy society. In accordanceRead MoreThe Effects Of Non Pharmacological Interventions On Quality Of Life Of Young Adults Living At Home With Neurological Conditions1499 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction: Non-pharmacological interventions have been shown to have an impact on the quality of life of young adults living at home with neurological conditions. Randomised controlled trials are used to test interventions (Greenhalgh 2014), i.e. non-pharmacological interventions. According to hospital episode statistics (Health Social Care Information Centre 2015) 42% of hospital admissions were due to neurological conditions. Indeed London as a city on its own, neurological conditions accountRead MoreNursing Profession And Label Nurses877 Words   |  4 PagesNursing has a long history of debate over defining the definition of nursing. Much of this debate has been centered on political views that often scrutinize the nursing profession and label nurses as subordinates. Definitions of nursing reflect society’s values and influence and subjected the profession to many misinterpretations. One common misconception was that a nurse was inferior to a physician because they followed orders. It was imperative for nurses to define their image and profession to

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Music and the Impact on Youth in America Essay Example For Students

Music and the Impact on Youth in America Essay Music and the Impact on Youth in America Film: 8 Mile Florida International University Synopsis 8-Mile Film The film begins in the rugged streets of the 8-mile section of Detroit, Michigan. A young man by the name of Jimmy aspires to become a rapper. The odds are stacked against him because of the complexion of his skin as well as the fact that he is a By rigmarole 2 much since high school shows signs of frustration and as such blames others for his setbacks in life. Set against Detroit Hip-Hop scene in 1995, Jimmy struggles to find his voice. The people of Detroit know 8-mile Road as the citys perimeter. It is also a psychological dividing line between what it is urban and what it is suburban, between black and white, between where Jimmy is and where he wants to be. In Detroit, survival is key, and for many in 8-mile, the emotional life preserver is Hip-Hop music. In the absence of nurturing parents, Jimmy and his friends, the cool and the very charismatic Future, optimistic dreamer Sol, aspiring activist DC Z, and the slow but steady Cheddar Bob who shoots himself in the leg with his own gun, have created a circle of friendship, and unbreakable bond, their own family. Mine, 002) Jimmy and his crew which they call themselves (Three One Third), live on hopes of getting their big break while struggling to sustain a living at their everyday dead end Jobs. As the nightlife comes to life, Three One Third feed their dreams in the Hip-Hop clubs where the citys best rappers battle each other with abusive rhymes, slick words, and derogatory remarks that are wielded like weapons. In the rap ba ttles words are meant to wound and victory belongs to the quick-witted. No matter whom we are, no matter where we live, borders bind us all but its the music hat frees and connects us all. (Loving Hanson, 2002) Many of us are content to live within these bordersothers are simply forced to exist within them. For Jimmy, the end of simply being forced to exist comes to end as he shows his lyrical prowess by winning the rap battle against the big bad Free world. History of Hip-Hop Influence It has been almost 30 years since the introduction of Hip-Hop. Over time, Hip- Hops become immensely popular, not Just in America, but also worldwide. Hip-Hop has expanded itself into music, fashion, advertisement, movies, and more. Its given papers, and those associated with Hip-Hop the chance to branch out into other ventures and create their own brands, for example Bad-Boy Records and Sean John. Also, it has allowed them to bring Hip-Hop to other communities through organizations and fundraisers as well. As of today, Hip-Hop has become an international phenomenon that ranges from music to a lifestyle. Hip-Hop has gone through many evolutions that some people do not agree or identify with. It has impacted a lot of things in the world from fashion to politics. Hip-Hop music has been used as a means to create songs that deliver somewhat negatives messages such as ex, drugs, violence, and the degradation of women (The Message by Grandmaster Flash), police brutality (F**k the Police by NNW), poverty in America (Heard Me Say by Kenya West), and the degradation of women (Wonder Why They Call You B*tech by OPAC) etc. Change Cool Here, 2005) But Hip-Hop has also been used to advocate more positive messages about being whatever you want to be (l Can by Nas), a father son relationship (Just the Two of Us by Will Smith), HIVE/AIDS awareness (Lets Talk About Sex by Salt-n-Peep), poverty and how women should be treated (Keep Yea Head Up by OPAC) etc. Overall, Hip-Hop has had its share of praise and scrutiny. The Hip-Hop economy increases at an astonishing rate. Hip-Hop is, according to Forbes, an industry that garners 10 billion dollars a year. Advertisers see rappers as an generation. It is reported by the NYPD Group, that more than 50% of people who purchase Hip-Hop albums are either teens or in their early ass. (Lealer, 2005) Young fans gravitate towards the images that they see of the Hip-Hop lifestyle, the cars, jewelry, expensive clothing, etc. For that reason, when seeing a rapper associated tit a particular brand, they are more inclined to buy a certain item in order to be a part of that lifestyle. For example, when Busts Rhymes, Pass the Couriers Part Two was released, sales for Couriers cognac increased. Guide Music Appreciation EssayRap music has changed since then as the industry has not wanted to commit the same mistakes. In a class of 1 lath graders at my school, I inquired on whether they felt that Hip- Hop has been a positive influence in their lives. In order to understand their answers, one must understand their background. The school is located in Hialeah, where most families are from the poor class. Most students are of Hispanic origin and African American origin. The class was divided in terms of whether Hip-Hop had a positive influence or negative influence. Students in my class stated that Hip-Hop expresses knowledge is power and as such they must empower themselves and educate themselves in order to make a mark in this world. Take into account when Kenya West came out to the rap world ND stated that he had dropped out of college and as such named one of his albums College Dropout. The students in my class stated that education is no longer the traditional idea of going to a college or university. They felt that education could be on the Job training, street knowledge, and life lessons. The idea of education is no longer the gauge for measuring who is and who is not successful. This example to me was a bit contradicting because even though I agree that knowledge can be acquired in many different ways, the Jobs on the global market require these degrees that come from the traditional university setting. The second point they stressed was that Hip-Hop has taught kids from a poor socio-economic background to deliver their creativity not through the usual means of art, poetry, and painting, but through the use of instruments, a beat, and quick-witted word play. The negative influence according to students was that Hip-Hop and its lyrics serve as a distraction from their real world. This makes me understand that the stance that rappers take with regards to their lyrics and their bragging of what they have, what they can buy, the women they can get and sleep with, drinking, and drug buses distorts certain realities for these young minds in America. Much like the movie we saw in class Regeneration, as much as these students enjoy Hip-Hop music they have become apathetic towards that lifestyle because of the fact that they see it as something that might be unattainable. Another point a student made is that Hip-Hop in its purest form is not what Hip-Hop is today. The student called it have, buy, attain, and do. He stated that when Hip-Hop started it had more substance in the sense that they spoke about things that were important in the community. However, little by little, this form of rhyming found its way into the rap game and thats the music thats being delivered to Americas youth. Very few lyricists today within their lyrics talk about societal issues. The young ladies in my class came up with the next negative influence that Hip-Hop has had with regards to women. They were hesitant at first to share, but I made it an open forum, and soon they began sharing their views on Hip-Hop and young women. The young ladies stated that certain rappers, in their lyrics and music videos, degraded them as hoes, sluts, and other derogatory terms. These young ladies were highly insulted in the sense that they felt not all girls want to be groupies or video vixens. The conversation got much better with the next statement! One of the girls stated that how can they compete with the girls in those videos when their body types are not even close to looking like those girls. These rappers are making it so that they have to have certain measurements in order to be attractive and/or meet certain standards. Rappers are painting an unrealistic picture of what true beauty is, and its unfair to them to have to live to those kinds of expectations. This is a universal hem in America that certain body types are the pictures perfect view of what beauty is and these young ladies feel as if it is an unrealistic goal to look like them.

Sunday, April 5, 2020

The Old Man and the Sea Tragedy Essay Example For Students

The Old Man and the Sea Tragedy Essay Tragedy is defined as a dramatic or heroic or literary work depicting a protagonist engaged in a orally significant struggle ending in ruin of profound disappointment. Hemingways, the Old Man and the Sea is no doubt a very tragic novel. The story starts off with the narrator explaining how Santiago, the old man, had gone 84 days without catching a fish, making the reader feel sorry for Santiago right off the start. The boy is a companion of Santiago whos been fishing with him, like an assistant, but still believes the old man is a great fisherman. The boys parents call the old man Salao, which is the worst form of unlucky, and the boy abiding by his parents went with another boat, which caught three fish in one week. It made the boy sad to see the old man with no fish, so the boy, Manolin, helped Santiago every time he went out to catch fish. So the reader gets a good view of the old mans situation from almost the very beginning of the book. We will write a custom essay on The Old Man and the Sea Tragedy specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Santiago has a strong will and will not give up no matter what. He promises to the boy, and himself that he will catch the biggest fish ever, on the 85th day since he last caught a fish. Santiago gets all prepared with reservoir, coils, a knife, and other gear to catch his fish. A quote from Clinton S. Burhans Jr. wrote in an essay that Santiago represents a noble and tragic individualism revealing what man can do in an indifferent universe which defeats him, and the love he can feel for such a universe and his humanity before it. (Baker, Ernest Hemingway) This quote is very true for Santiago, in showing that if he didnt catch a fish, or something bad happened on the 85th day that Santiago would be ruined. When Santiago got his first bite he had no idea what he was in for. The old man had three other lines out in the water at once, all at different depths to cover all aspects of the sea. On the line deepest in the sea a fish starts to bite and Santiago remains calm, waits for the fish to lunge for it. Eat it a little more. Eat it so that the point of the hook goes into your heart and kills you.(p44) This was a quote showing Santiago and the way he was talking to the fish, because there was no one else to talk to. When the fish finally eats the hook the old man struggles, he can tell its a very large fish when he realizes he isnt gaining any line. In the end, after his huge struggle with the sharks they finally swallow the last bit of meat from his marlin. The Old Man and the Sea isnt classified as a tragedy, but in some aspects can be. Where the protagonist, Santiago, goes on a quest that ends in great disappointment, where the sharks eat his marlin, which was his quest.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Parentâ€Child and Sibling Relationships

Parent–Child and Sibling Relationships Introduction This section lays a foundation on the subject of sibling relationships. The goal is to give the reader a highlight of the content of the paper. Research on children relationships takes three divergent routes. The research on parent–child relationships focuses on how parents establish and/or maintain relationships with their children. The second approach entails how children form relationships with their peers in different social settings such as schools. The third approach, which is the focus of this thesis, is on children relationships with their siblings. This relationship exists long after the demise of one’s parents and long before one meets his or her spouse. In this sense, it may be regarded as the longest relationship that people form in their lives. It determines children social capabilities and their capacity to resolve conflicts positively. Hence, the connection is critical in their emotional and cognitive developments (Kennedy, Kramer, 2008, p. 568).Advertising We will write a custom thesis sample on Parent–Child and Sibling Relationships specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Using peer-reviewed journal articles, the current thesis begins with a discussion of the general informational and historical background of sibling relationships. It then discusses impacts of sibling relationships, their differences across cultures, factors that influence them and their effects on siblings. In the last section, the thesis addresses the ways of ensuring closeness in sibling relationships. The Sibling Relationships Historical Views on Sibling Relations This section presents the psychoanalytic approach to family relations as one of the earliest attempts to explain sibling relationships. This school of thought is associated with psychologist Sigmund Freud. Sigmund interpreted sibling relations as a manifestation of Oedipus complex where male siblings competed for maternal attention while female siblings compete for the attention of their fathers (De Vleminck, 2010, p. 173). Although contentious, psychologists such as Alfred Adler assert that siblings build their personality through struggles to gain significance from their parents and that birth order is an important determinant of the development of sibling personalities (Boll, Ferring, Filipp, 2005, p. 155). According to Howe (2012), psychologist David Levy suggested in 1941 that siblings exhibit rivalry with older siblings (p. 1). They show an aggressive behavior towards new infant siblings in such a typical way so that it can be sufficiently considered a normal character of sibling relationships.Advertising Looking for thesis on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Any behavior towards a newborn sibling is related to the perception of different changes in the previous relationships between firstborns and the parents so that peopleâ€℠¢s psychological processes can be said to influence sibling relationships. Cross-section and longitudinal researches that were conducted in the 21st century reveal that sibling relations influence the personality of individuals. With the identified risk factors to poor sibling relationships, various studies by identify aggression prevention and conflicts prevention as important strategies for creating positive sibling relationships (Murray, Dwyer, Rubin, Knighton-Wisor, Booth-LaForce, 2014, p.1361; Buist Vermande, 2014, p.529). In the literature on quality of sibling relationships, the focus has been made on studying psychological implications of sibling relationships, variations in sibling relationships in societies, and the implications of their successful and unsuccessful development. Characteristics of Sibling Relationships This bit presents sibling relationships as an issue that is characterized by conflicts, intimacy, rivalry, and warmth during childhood, adolescence, and ad ulthood (Dixon, Reyes, Leppert Pappas, 2008, p. 119). The type of sibling relationships depends on different factors such as attachment levels, the environment in which children are brought up, and/or family constellation. For example, the process of modernization and industrialization increases social mobility such that siblings become detached from one another with time (Knigge, Maas, Leeuwen, Mandemakers, 2014, p.549).Advertising We will write a custom thesis sample on Parent–Child and Sibling Relationships specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Attachment between children and their parents has a powerful role in the development of social-emotional traits at childhood. Ward, Vaughan, and Robb (1988) posit that parent-child attachments predict future child aptitude and interaction behaviors with peers and siblings since the kids tend to emulate their parents’ behaviors (p.643). A scholarly contention has been witnessed th at early children relationships are critical in determining their identity and personality. Since parents and siblings form the first relationships with infants, there has been intense interest in studying the influence of parents and sibling relationships on psychological development of children from infancy and early childhood through adolescence to adulthood (Kolak, Volling, 2011, p. 214). Hence, it is crucial to investigate the issue of conflicts that characterizes parent-sibling interactions. Conflict among siblings is a common characteristic of the sibling relationship. Conflicting relationships among siblings may result from learning (Bascoe, Davies, Cummings, 2012, p. 2121). Children learn to be violent from observing parents and adults who engage in violent acts. Therefore, it is possible for children brought up by parents who regularly have domestic wrangles to be violent. Siblings also learn conflict resolution and management from their immediate environment. Sibling ri valry is also a common phenomenon.Advertising Looking for thesis on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Children learn rivalry from their environment. When parents, relatives, and neighbors involve themselves in rivalry, children consider enmity an acceptable behavior (Campione-Barr, Bassett Greer, Schwab Kruse, 2014, p. 666). Therefore, they follow by imitating and replicating the behavior. However, the development of such characteristics is highly dependent on individual child’s characteristics and guidance from parents. Impact of Sibling Relationships This section explores the benefits of successful sibling relations with peers, parents, relatives, and teachers. The section further explores the effects of unsuccessful sibling relationships. Successful sibling relationship refers to a situation where people from a certain family end up demonstrating a long-lasting mutual relationship that is marked by the cooperation of all members, regardless of their marital status or job rank as they grow up. Benefits of Successful Sibling Relationships As this section reveals, sibling re lations are associated with benefits such as the privilege of enjoying the companionship of each other and the sharing of each other’s emotions in a joyous setting. Individuals who have successful relationships end up enjoying the companionship of each of the siblings. Feinberg, Sakuma, Hostetler, and McHale (2013) assert that most people in the US are more likely to have siblings to get the aforementioned camaraderie (p.97). In the European-American context, the authors also reckon that children’s most time is spent in the company of siblings as opposed to any other person. In the minority groups, siblings play the role of companionship and care giving (Feinberg et al., 2013, p.97). Therefore, it is important to ensure sibling closeness as a strategy that guarantees positive interactions. Feinberg et al. (2013) present SAS (Siblings Are Special) program for preventing adolescence-related behavioral problems, which may decrease sibling closeness by impairing the qualit y of their relationships (p. 98). Analysis of the program reveals that SAS model is important in increasing sibling engagements. Sibling interactions form the basic tenets for developing relationship skills. Building positive relationships is impossible without a compromise. Indeed, Feinberg et al. (2013) assert that sibling relations are built on frequent and high conflict levels compared to any other close relationship in people’s lives (p.98). Aggressive behavior is also common among siblings. Therefore, the closeness between siblings can be increased by encouraging constructive conflicts to help in establishing avenues for building trust among them. In this process, attention should be focused on reducing antagonism, quests for domineering other siblings, and negative criticism. Specifically, parents have major responsibilities to ensure fairness and equality amongst siblings to minimize power struggles. Siblings who have successful associations exchange their emotions in an environment of love, engagement in conflicts, and support. Although aggression among siblings has been considered an acceptable phenomenon, it potentially influences childhood and adolescent adjustments (p.2). The researcher finds proactive aggressive behavior among siblings, increased use of substances, and high depressive moods as important risk factors for child delinquency. These relationships persist even after the researchers adjust various family differences, stress, and even social-graphic variations (Tucker et al., 2014, p.1). Therefore, minimization of proactive aggression among siblings can aid in increasing their closeness. Oh et al. (2015) examined the longitudinal trajectories in behaviors of young children towards their infants in the context of avoidance, antagonism, and positive engagement (p. 126). 50% of all the investigated children were well engaged. Such children portrayed outstanding levels of engagement with their siblings’ infants who were charact erized by little incidents of avoidance and antagonism (Oh et al., 2015, p.126). This claim suggests that reducing antagonism and avoidance behaviors towards infants by other siblings through enhancing positive engagement can help to increase closeness among siblings. For adolescents who are transiting to colleges, Lindell, Campione-Barr, and Greer (2014) reckon the need to put in place strategies for ensuring continued positive relationships between the first and second born as the firstborn transits into college is important for the sustenance of close sibling relationships in the future years, including adulthood (p. 79). Such strategies entail maintaining adequate egalitarian relationship during childhood and reducing sibling conflicts both in childhood and in adolescence (Lindell et al., 2014, p.80). Negative Effects of Unsuccessful Sibling Relations As this section reveals, unsuccessful sibling relationships have negative implications such as sibling victimization and psycholo gical issues that lead to conflicts. Sibling victimization may involve physical assault, which leads to injury. Such injuries produce negative psychological effects on the victim. The situation may lead to rivalry and lower warmth between siblings. Although psychology scholars contend that aggression is normal among siblings, aggression that leads to victimization indicates unsuccessful sibling relationships. Iturralde et al. (2013) identify moderating effects of successful sibling relationships in adjusting to inter-parental conflicts (p. 716). Therefore, unsuccessful sibling relations heighten the threshold of negative effects of inter-parental conflicts. There is growing research evidence that links psychological issues to sibling relationships. For example, Buist and Vermande (2014) assert that sibling relationships have identifiable implications on psychosocial functioning of children (p.529). Some of the indicators of the level of quality sibling relationships are warmth and c onflicts (Randell, Peterson, 2009, p. 859). Warmth refers to the psychological feeling of intimacy and the capacity of a sibling to provide companionship (Gamble, Yu, Kuehn, 2011, p. 606). Emotional attraction towards one’s siblings determines whether to connect more or retract from the siblings’ warmth or companionship. Hatred constitutes a psychological emotion that influences sibling relationships. Hatred and perceptions of competition for parental attention can influence the degree of closeness between siblings. The two elements have the potential of forming sibling relationships based on negative conflicts and proactive aggression. Influences on Sibling Relationships Introduction This section provides various studies that have been done concerning the influence of cross-cultures on sibling relations. The section presents cross-culture, identity, personality, and social development as some of the areas that sibling relationships tend to influence. Cross-Culture E ffects Individualist customs that are prevalent in America and some parts of Europe highlight individual accomplishment, irrespective of the cost of team ambitions. Such customs lead to a tough rivalry. Collectivist customs that are common in China focus on the folks and group agenda, as opposed to personal needs. In their literature review on cross-cultural differences in sibling relationships, Buist, Paalman, and Branje (2014) identify different studies that confirm cultural differences in sibling relationships among western and non-western societies (p. 267). They reveal how past studies define sibling relationships in terms of love-hate dimension, which reflects individuation and competition that are associated with western cultures (Buist et al., 2014, p.267). In the western cultures, siblings have a discretionary type of sibling interactions. They are encouraged to remain in close contact. Some elder brothers and sisters may be required to assume the role of taking care of the ir other younger blood relatives while their parents assume the main duty of attending to their kids. However, in the case of non-industrialized cultures, forming relationships with younger siblings constitutes an obligation for older siblings (Buist et al., 2014, p.267). This observation suggests that cultural norms and values advocate strong cooperation and closeness among siblings in such cultures (Kretschmer, Pike, 2010, p. 411). Culture defines norms, values, and ways of thinking of a given group of people. These aspects may determine the mechanisms for forming social relationships between siblings. Buist et al. (2014) examined sibling relationships in the cross-cultural context by comparing the quality of sibling associations among the Moroccan and Dutch sibling samples (p. 269). After collecting data through questionnaires and analyzing it, the researchers found a significant difference in the quality of sibling relationships amongst Moroccan and Dutch adolescents. The Moroc can siblings reported high levels of quality relationships and lower prevalence levels of behavior problems compared to the Dutch adolescents (Buist et al., 2014, p.269). Nevertheless, problems of anxiety and depression among the siblings in both Moroccan and Dutch samples were similar (Buist et al., 2014, p.272). Different cultures adopt different parenting styles. In the Mexican descent society, Gamble and Yu (2014) observe how democratic parenting supports sibling relationships that are characterized by less egoism and high levels of warmth (p.223). Identity As this paragraph confirms, different identities and socialization processes that form the personality of siblings may impair sibling associations due to disagreements and low cooperation levels. Through differentiation, during puberty and maturity, siblings distinguish themselves from others to create uniqueness in behaviors and socialization processes (Wong et al., 2010, p.674). Cultures such as Indonesia and Costa Rica are identified by their value of the family unit (Yaman, Mesman, Jzendoorn, Bakermans-Kranenburg, Linting, 2010, p. 619). Hence, children and teenagers show more security, intimacy, companionship, and satisfaction when they are with their siblings than when they are with their friends. Youths in countries such as the USA find happiness and acceptance from their friends (Yaman et al., 2010). Time for most of the USA children is spent in shared activities with friends. Family-oriented societies, also known as collectivistic cultures, enhance more sibling interdependence where the situation of children looking out for each other defines the daily life (Yaman et al., 2010, p. 621). In South Asian communities, children play important responsibilities in the course of their continued existence. Running of home properties, birthright sharing, and important formal procedures are effectively taken care of by brothers and sisters. In idiosyncratic societies, a high significance is given to pers onal accomplishments. Yaman et al. (2010) conduct a study on collectivist and individualistic cultures (p. 618). According to Yaman et al. (2010), collectivist cultures are identified by their participation in cooperative tasks (p. 621). Besides, much focus is given to what people have in common. Individualistic societies are characterized by participation in competitive duties. Much weight is given to what makes the individuals unique (Yaman et al., 2010, p. 621). Affluence, independence, and variety among siblings are given importance in the individualistic setting. Siblings in the individualistic settings grow to be strong and self-independent (Yaman et al., 2010, p. 620). Eccentricity exists in Western Europe and a large part of the US while the communal society is evident in Asia and some Europe regions among other places. Due to the self-independent nature of the individualistic society, children in such a society mature and discover themselves at an early age. Development pre vails in the individualistic society because siblings value personal achievement and sovereignty (Yaman et al., 2010, p. 621). Personality This section shows how sibling relationships shape the personality of many kids, when it comes to the sharing of skills and ideas with their peers, especially if they have same age bracket where they spend most of their times interacting as a team. Children utilize most of their time with their peers than their parents while growing up. Through this interaction, Cicirelli (1995) confirms how they form their characters and learn effective skills on socializing and taking care of each other (p. 23). Therefore, siblings act as cultural brokers who transfer values and practices across generations. Regardless of the widespread inclination in sibling associations, the society shows differences in family affairs. In industrialized nations such as the United States, siblings are defined mainly by biological relations, which focus on the immediate family as the defining factor of relationship. In other countries, all kids within an equivalent age bracket are considered brothers and sisters, while other cultures deploy a discrete characterization to distinguish brothers and sisters by considering their masculinity or femininity traits and birth arrangements. More respect and responsibility are usually placed on older siblings across all generations. Children influence each other as they grow. A kid’s peers determine his or her character. Parents across cultures are always aware of this fact since most of them end up advising their kids on the groups of peers that they need to interact with or avoid. They have always been judgmental of their children’s company. While growing, children consider things such as birth order, sex, and age to select their mates (Robertson, Shepherd, Goedeke, 2014, p.37). Collective cultures and individualistic cultures differ when it comes to sibling relationships. Collective cultures tend to be more family-oriented (Yaman et al., 2010). They have shown a significant level of sibling relations and involvement. Brothers and sisters in communal backgrounds such as the Latinos utilize approximately half of their valuable moments with their peers and relatives as opposed to the American kids who do not utilize as much duration with their relatives. They tend to find more value in spending time with their friends. Social Development This segment shows how collectivistic societies instill the culture of family cohesion, cooperation, togetherness, and conformity to the set standards. The section shows how this culture cultivates an environment of unity and love where all members are free to seek and get crucial advice from the rest when it comes to accomplishing any task in the family. The idiosyncratic society upholds personal growth and the communication of individual issues. When the American children who grew in an individualistic society are asked to express themselves or narrate a story that they had been told before, most of them are specific. They describe the story from a personal experience than Korean or Chinese kids who grew up in a collective society (Yaman et al., 2010, p. 619). Children in the collective society evaluate stories from a positive aspect and discuss other people more than the American children. The mind of children in individualistic societies is more specific. It focuses on individual situations that they have encountered. On the other hand, the mindset of children in a collective society is more general and less emotional. Their thinking is social relationship-focused. These patterns and differences in mindset and reasoning are seen because western cultures enhance autonomy (Yaman et al., 2010, p. 620). They put significance on personal qualities. Hence, siblings in such cultures are raised to stand out and speak for themselves, whereas eastern cultures improve togetherness and give importance to the group. Siblings here ar e brought up to focus on the society around them. The cultural differences in siblings across culture persist even into their adult life. College students in the individualistic society talk about personal preferences and autonomy in relation to their partners in the collective society. Despite the differences in a relationship due to cultural differences, siblings can integrate more than their culture when exposed to a different environment where they can form a bicultural identity (Yaman et al., 2010, p. 619). Influence on the Quality of Sibling Relations Successful Relationships Parent/Peer-Child Interaction As this section reveals, successful sibling relationships produce positive effects on the growth and development of children from their childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Such effects can be grouped into peer/parent-child, child-environment interaction, and child-power status. Sibling relationships constitute one of the long lasting relationships in an individualâ₠¬â„¢s life (Iturralde, Margolin, Shapiro, 2013, p.717). Such interactions also act as the foundation for the formation of other relationships such as a positive affiliation with peers and parents (Downey et al., 2015, p. 274). For instance, successful sibling associations increase warmth and emotional attachments between children and their parents and peers (Buist Vermande, 2014, p.529). Therefore, success in inducing positive sibling relationships is important for better sibling interaction with other peers in their adolescent and adulthood (Campione-Barr, Smetana, 2010, p. 464). Cultural value theory and ethnic equivalence hypothesis explain how differences in familial relationships influence the quality sibling relationships (Padilla-Walker, Harper, Jensen, 2010, p. 420). Families that have different ethnicity when compared to the main cultures thrive in alternative value systems. This situation has the implication of encountering similar experiences among specific family con texts to produce deviations in the meaning of certain elements that define sibling relationships among minority families. Ethnic equivalence theory holds that familial relations do not have direct impacts on the outcomes of children since they surpass any ethnic boundary to display universality in terms of their influence. This claim implies that no significant differences in sibling relationships are anticipated in cross-cultural contexts. The assemblage of families, their structure, and traits of each child influence value sibling relationships. Assemblage implies the number of brothers and sisters, birth progression, kids and grownups’ gender and years, the level of interaction (taken up or brother/sister), and kids’ intervals. Despite the fact that different types of family relationships play a key part in influencing sibling relationships, the quality of parent-children relationship greatly influences sibling relationships. Differences that are peculiar to each ch ild are important in influencing their interaction (Shalash, Wood, Parker, 2013, p.288). For example, young children have temperament as an important factor that determines their relationships while older children have cognitive, personality, and social skills, which are important determinants of sibling relationships (Murray et al., 2014, p.1363). Factors that influence the quality of sibling rapport are related to one another. For example, Dixon et al. (2008) observed the relationships between personality and birth order in large families (families with 6 or more siblings) using a sample size of 361 siblings (p. 119). The researchers focused on Neuroticism, Psychoticism, and extraversion personality traits (Dixon et al., 2008, p.119). Using hierarchical model, the researchers also scrutinized the impacts of age, size of families, and gender on the siblings’ personality. They identified an age effect on the extraversion personality while the size of families and gender did not produce any significant impacts on any of the investigated personality aspects (Dixon et al., 2008, p.119). This observation suggests that age has an effect on the quality of sibling relationships. As the age increases, it influences the personality of individual siblings. Oh, Volling, and Gonzalez (2015) indicate that the quality of sibling relationships changes with time, as it is emotionally less intense among middle-aged siblings and those in the adolescent stage (p.120). Although the family environment during the siblings’ childhood may have produced high-quality relationships, they (siblings) experience lower quality relationships at adulthood due to the competing pressures of their work and individual families. Child-Environment Interaction The environment in which siblings are brought up influences the quality of their relationships. The environment can be shared or not (Dixon et al., 2008, p.120). Mutual surroundings such as growing up in the same home produce mo re similarities in terms of character definition while the non-shared atmosphere is associated with character variations that may be observed among brothers and sisters. Siblings may also fail to share the same environment due to their birth order. Thus, they undergo different experiences, which influence their personalities differently (Dixon et al., 2008, p.120). Although the birth sequence may affect the quality of interaction in terms of their people’s distinctiveness, there lacks scholarly evidence and agreement on how it exactly influences the personality of individuals. However, the power difference that is associated with the birth order has effects on the quality of sibling relationships. Child-Power Status Firstborns are co-caregivers in many nonwestern societies. Thus, they function as surrogates parents. This situation makes them enjoy high power over other siblings in a family. The power status increases with an increasing age gap between siblings. It also varies depending on gender. For example, older girls are known in some cultures as better caregivers and teachers to their younger siblings relative to older boys. Dixon et al. (2008) assert that birth order has effects on the quality of sibling relationships (p.120). Firstborns feel more threatened by a second born since they have to share their power and parents’ attention and affection with the second and subsequent births. Second and subsequent births may not feel this threat since they find power already vested in the firstborn sibling. In a cross-sectional study, Whiteman, McHale, and Crouter (2007) examined the influence of older siblings on younger siblings (p. 970). They assessed aspects such as peer competence, interests in sports and arts, and engagement in risky behaviors. The researchers found a positive correlation between the reported temporary involvement together with intimacy and positive influence for younger siblings (Whiteman et al., 2007, p.963). Indeed, sibli ngs reported similarities in terms of engagement, interest in the examined domains and high competence when older ones had the power of influence to the younger ones (Whiteman et al., 2007, p.970). In nonwestern cultures, sibling relationships are characterized by high cooperation. To verify this claim, Song and Volling (2015) examined the relationship between co-parenting, temperament among firstborns, and cooperative behaviors upon request by their mothers to help in changing their one-month-old infant diapers (p. 130). Questionnaires were given to gather primary data concerning the assessment of parents’ temperament and cooperative behaviors of their children. Song and Volling (2015) confirm the study results that suggest that irrespective of mothers’ demographic characteristics, co-parenting influences the quality of sibling relationships whereby soothability acts as an important determinant of cooperation among siblings (p. 130). Unsuccessful Relationships Many fa ctors cause unsuccessful relationships among siblings. They include sibling birth and aggressive behavior/victimization. This segment considers poor reception of a subsequent birth by other siblings an important determinant of failing sibling relationships. Volling et al. (2014) assert that mothers report high opposition behaviors among firstborns against their siblings in three weeks after birth (p.634). This situation causes noncompliance and naughty conducts among firstborns. For mothers, such manners cause a considerable amount of stress. Firstborns who eagerly wait for their siblings’ birth respond in an affectionate manner as a call for caring of the infant sibling few days after birth (Volling et al., 2014, p.634). This claim suggests that where firstborns receive their second born and subsequent siblings as threats to their power structures with their parents, they (subsequent siblings) are likely to receive them negatively. This case leads to poor quality sibling rel ationships at an early age where the family environment does not shape the initial negative perceptions accordingly. Indeed, among adult siblings, the quality of their relationships depends on their childhood familial environment (Dixon et al., 2008, p.120). Through LPA (latent profile analysis), Volling et al. (2014) researched the reactions of children to their fathers or mothers’ interactions with newborn sibling infants (p. 634). The examined parents reported a high prevalence of behavioral problems among children after one to four months of sibling birth. A new birth creates an emotion of jealousy in an older sibling (Volling et al., 2014, p. 634). This case creates a rivalry behavior. Nevertheless, having a sibling has positive effects on educational skill attainment. Downey, Condron, and Yucel (2015) found that children who did not have siblings lagged behind in the attainment of social skills from kindergarten to the fifth grade compared to those who had either brothe rs or sisters (p. 273). This observation suggests that siblings influence one other positively through social skill development where each relative is free to share his or her social skills such as playing particular games and group singing among other social activities. In fact, as Downey et al. (2015) confirm with reference to social skill development, the quality of sibling affiliation, which increases social skill attainment, depends on sibling interactions in a family context (p. 273). The quality of such interactions then influences the capacity of siblings to form positive relationships with their peers in other social settings such as schools. Tanrikulu and Campell (2014) investigated the engagement of siblings in bullying behavior (p. 1). Drawing from 455 participants from grade 5-12, the findings indicated a high percentage of traditional bullying behavior for siblings relative to bullying by peers. Despite the low number of intimidators in cyber and other localities, brot hers and sisters mentioned unfair treatment and sophisticated deeds in the process of carrying out harassment. Maltreatment is a negative behavior. It affects people’s creativity levels, reduces morale, may cause accidents, influences negatively moral and ethical judgment capacity, and/or hinders people from realizing their full potential in their areas of talent (Feinberg et al., 2013, p. 97). Thus, its possession among siblings indicates unsuccessful sibling relations. Aggression and victimization are associated with unsuccessful sibling relations. For example, Tucker, Finkelhor, Turner, and Shattuck (2014) present a growing body of research that indicates how victimization among siblings has direct relationships with poor mental health (p.625). The researchers hypothesize that conflicts between parents and violence in families influence experiences of children in victimization. Upon conducting a multinomial regression analysis, the results indicate that sibling victimizati on relates to negative family experiences. This observation implies that parent–children relationships are important not only for a successful development of sibling relations, but also for mitigation of sibling engagement in family conflicts (Recchia Howe, 2008, p. 1564). However, although negative conflicts among siblings may indicate unsuccessful sibling relations, positive conflicts are important as the basis of developing respect and trust among siblings. Conclusion This study has established issues that parents should focus on in their parenting roles to ensure that siblings develop and maintain positive relationships from childhood to adolescence and even in adulthood. The study emphasizes that parents should note that although issues that influence the quality of sibling relationships such as their separation when they attend colleges or relocation in search of jobs are inevitable, they have the capacity to create and control the environment for developing and sustai ning their positive relationship. They need to mitigate factors that lead to poor quality sibling relationships. Research on various normative issues that influence sibling relations at adulthood identifies childhood environment as an important issue that determines the quality of the relationship. Siblings who grow up in families that have cohesive ties exhibit closer relationships. Psychological factors such as emotional attention between siblings and warmth affect the element of closeness among siblings. Proactive aggression and negative conflicts have the effect of lowering the quality of sibling relationships. Thus, to create closeness among siblings, parents need to provide an enabling environment for facilitating their close interactions by eliminating risk factors that allow the growth of conflicts, which may lead to the emergence of aggressive behaviors among siblings. Reference List Bascoe, M., Davies, T., Cummings, M. (2012). Beyond Warmth and Conflict: The Developmental Utility of a Boundary Conceptualization of Sibling Relationship Processes. Child Development, 83(6), 2121-2138. Boll, T., Ferring, D., Filipp, S. (2005). Effects of Parental Differential Treatment on Relationship Quality with Siblings and Parents: Justice Evaluations as Mediators. Social Justice Research, 18(2), 155-182. Buist, K., Vermande, M. (2014). Sibling Relationships and their Associations with Child Competence and Problems Behavior. Journal of Family Psychology, 28(4), 529-537. Buist, K., Paalman, C., Branje, S. (2014). Longitudinal Effects of Sibling Relationships Quality on Adolescent Problems Behavior: A Cross-Ethnic Comparison. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 20(2), 266-275. Campione-Barr, N., Smetana, J. (2010). Who Said You Could Wear My Sweater?’’ Adolescent Siblings’ Conflicts and Associations With Relationship Quality. Child Development, 81(2), 464–471. Campione-Barr, N., Bassett Greer, K., Schwab, K., Kruse, A. ( 2014). Differing Domains of Actual Sibling Conflict Discussions and Associations with Conflict Styles and Relationship Quality. Social Development, 23(4), 666-683. Cicirelli, G. (1995). Sibling Relationships across The Life Span. New York, NY: Plenum Press. De Vleminck, J. (2010). Oedipus and Cain: Brothers in arms. International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 19(3), 172-184. Dixon, M., Reyes, C., Leppert, M., Pappas, L. (2008). Personality and Birth order in Large Families. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(1), 119-128. Downey, D., Condron, D., Yucel, D. (2015). Number of Siblings and Social Skills Revisited Among American Fifth Graders. Journal of Family Issues, 36(2), 273-296. Feinberg, M., Sakuma, K., Hostetler, M., McHale, S. (2013). Enhancing Sibling Relationships to Prevent Adolescent Problems Behaviors: Theory, Design And Feasibility of Sibling Are Special. Evaluation and Program Planning, 36(3), 97-106. Gamble, W., Yu, J. (2014). Young Children’s Sibling Relat ionship Interactional types: Associations with Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Child Characteristics. Early Education and Development, 25(1), 223-239. Gamble, W., Yu, J., Kuehn, E. (2011). Adolescent Sibling Relationship Quality and Adjustment: Sibling Trustworthiness and Modeling, as Factors Directly and Indirectly Influencing These Associations. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Howe, C. (2012, Nov. 24). Sibling Rivalry: One Long Food Fight. The NYT, pp. 1-3. Iturralde, E., Margolin, G., Shapiro, L. (2013). Positive and Negative Interactions Observed Between Siblings: Moderating Effects for Children Exposed to Parents Conflict. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23(4), 716-729. Kennedy, D., Kramer, L. (2008). Improving Emotion Regulation and Sibling Relationship Quality: The More Fun With Sisters and Brothers Program. Family Relations, 57(1), 567–578. Kennedy, M., Betts, L., Underwood, J. (2014). Moving Beyond the Mother–Child Dyad: Exploring the Link bet ween Maternal Sensitivity and Siblings’ Attachment Styles. The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development, 175(4), 287-300. Knigge, A., Maas, I., Leeuwen, M., Mandemakers, K. (2014). Status Attainment of Siblings during Modernization. American Sociological Review, 79(3), 549-574. Kolak, A., Volling, B. (2011). Sibling Jealousy in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Links to Sibling Relationship Quality. Infant and Child Development, 20(1), 213–226. Kretschmer, T., Pike, A. (2010). Associations Between Adolescent Siblings’ Relationship Quality and Similarity and Differences in Values. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(4), 411–418 Lindell, A., Campione-Barr, N., Greer, K. (2014). Associations between Adolescent Sibling Conflicts and Relationship Quality during Transitions to College. Emerging Adulthood, 2(2), 79-91. Murray, K., Dwyer, K., Rubin, K., Knighton-Wisor, S., Booth-LaForce, C. (2014). Parent-Child Relationships, Parenta l Psychological Control and Aggression: Maternal and Parental Relationships. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 43(1), 1361-1373. Oh, W., Volling, B., Gonzalez, R. (2015). Trajectories of Children’s Social Interactions with their Infant Sibling in the First Year: A Multidimensional Approach. Journal of Family Psychology, 29(1), 119-129. Padilla-Walker, L., Harper, J., Jensen, A. (2010). Self-Regulation as a Mediator Between Sibling Relationship Quality and Early Adolescents’ Positive and Negative Outcomes. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(4), 419-428. Randell, A., Peterson, C. (2009). Affective Qualities of Sibling Disputes, Mothers’ Conflict Attitudes, and Children’s Theory of Mind Development. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Recchia, H., Howe, N. (2008). Associations Between Social Understanding, Sibling Relationship Quality, and Siblings’ Conflict Strategies and Outcomes. Child Development, 80(5), 1564–1578. Robertson, R., Shepherd, D., Goedeke, S. 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Friday, February 21, 2020

GP210 week 2 Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

GP210 week 2 - Research Paper Example nalist views argue that a constitution does not evolve or change; therefore, it will always mean what it meant when it was adopted in a country (Exploring Constitutional Conflicts, 2012). With this view in mind, its interpretation must be in line with the thoughts that the people who came with it had in mind. These people also argue that originalism preserves the authority of the court which is a mandatory element in ensuring that there is the prevalence of justice in a country. Thus, this school of thought believes that the constitution must be interpreted with regard to the views of the original composers. On the other hand, those who oppose this viewpoint argue that no written constitution can anticipate the means that the government might use to oppress people; hence it is sometimes mandatory for judges to fill in the gaps that exist in the constitution through their interpretation (Exploring Constitutional Conflicts, 2012). With these view in mind, the constitution must be interpreted with the needs of the people it is supposed to govern in mind. In addition to this, non-originalism allows judges to rectify inflexible interpretations that no longer serve their original purposes (Whittington, 2001). The need to amend or possibly revoke bad laws that exist in the constitution will be realized with continual originalist interpretations. Other than leave courts to continuously find fault in the constitutional provisions, the people concerned will be obliged to come up with a new constitution that best suits the needs of people. However, coming up with a new constitution is a costly affair and this is the reason why non-original interpretations should be given way. Moreover, they will allow for more enlightened understanding on contemporary issues such as equal treatment of blacks, women and other minority groups (Whittington, 2001). With these views in place, it is clear that non-originalist interpretations of the constitution are more favorable. Apart from